ServiceWorker and Progressive Networking

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I’ve been toying with ServiceWorker for a while. The single most complicated issue when it comes to ServiceWorker has been dealing with caching in a straightforward way. In my previous article – an introduction to ServiceWorker – I wrote about a few different strategies: hitting the network first, hitting the cache first, and hitting the cache but going to the network nevertheless to get “eventually fresh” content. The last one I mentioned was hitting the cache, going to the network nevertheless, and somehow using postMessage to relay updates back to web pages showing stale content. In this article, we’ll explore how to communicate from a ServiceWorker to a web page and back.

This article expands on my newfound experience in dealing with stale cached content in a ServiceWorker. A follow-up article will contain details on how these communication channels can be laid out, while this one mostly discusses the strategies while relying upon swivel, a message passing library I made that simplifies communication between ServiceWorker and its clients.

Progressive Networking

I firmly believe the "Cached then Network and postMessage" strategy I published earlier is one of the best approaches to leveraging ServiceWorker.

The killer feature in ServiceWorker is offline “first” – even if I’d strongly prefer calling it something else, like progressive networking or whatever. It’s not really offline “first”, because ServiceWorker has to be installed, thus JavaScript has to run. That means server-side rendering on initial page load is still just as important, and it also means there’s nothing “first” about offline first. </rant>

As Jake Archibald often insists on, going to the network first may result in a very poor experience for clients with very low connectivity that are nevertheless considered to be “online” by web browsers – even though they’re barely able to download any content. Timeouts are a very poor solution to the “barely online” issue, and serving whatever content we have in the cache immediately is a way better alternative. After all, the “instant” aspect is what makes progressive networking a killer feature. The simple explanation is that that’s what happens in native apps, and what humans have eventually come to expect in mobile browsers (and will soon come to expect from desktop applications as well, because transitivity).

Updating Stale Cached Content

If we want to be strict about progressive networking, that means we’re always going to hit the cache, and if there’s a hit we’re going to serve that. No matter what. Anything, immediately. Way better than the right stuff, but later. The problem, then, is that the cached content may be stale. The strategy I proposed last week was as follows.

  • Query the cache, if we hit something, return that immediately
  • Query the network, even if the cache was hit
    • Use the network response if the cache was a miss
    • Notify clients about the updated content if the cache was a hit

Today I want to focus on that last bullet point.

First, we probably need to decide what warrants an update. Unfortunately, that’s mostly application-specific. For example, an image editing website may consider images to be critical content and would thus like to update images whenever they’re revalidated in the ServiceWorker cache. In the case of this measly blog, as a case study, the content that changes most frequently are comments, and occasionally articles are edited, too.

The single most important thing we should update in most applications is views. Unfortunately, the mechanism for doing that is application-specific – framework-specific at best.

Suppose a web page fetches a model via JSON through some kind of client-side router, and then renders a view. In our current situation, that’d be almost instantaneous if an active ServiceWorker had a cached copy of the response to that request. Later, the ServiceWorker would get the response from the network and update the cache. By that time, though, our client happily received and rendered the (now stale, maybe) previously cached response.

Here’s something like what we used to have. The cached response is returned immediately if available, otherwise we return the networked promise. Once the fetch response comes through, we store it in the cache.

function queriedCache (cached) {
  var networked = fetch(request)
    .then(fetchedFromNetwork, unableToResolve)
  return cached || networked;

  function fetchedFromNetwork (response) {
    var cacheCopy = response.clone();
    caches.open(version + 'pages').then(function add (cache) {
      cache.put(request, cacheCopy);
    return response;

We need to reconfigure the ServiceWorker, letting clients know when a previously cached response has been updated. In the fetchedFromNetwork callback we could test to see if cached is truthy, whether the request matches our origin, and whether the response is JSON. This is specific to the case study, you might need to filter on something else, as to avoid treating GET API calls as “view updates”. You might also want to check whether the responses are actually different in some way – maybe just content length, for instance – so you don’t waste your clients time.

var url = new URL(request.url);
var json = response.headers.get('Content-Type').indexOf('application/json') !== -1;
if (cached && url.origin === location.origin && json) {
  // let the client know we have an updated response

A generalized approach such as this is much more effective than trying to modularize these efforts into updates that are specific to particular views or components, as that’d involve significant more effort in both implementation and future maintainability. More focused approaches are probably better in terms of UX, and as with all things, user testing is king – or, should be. After all, you’re reading this because you care about your humans and that they get the content they deserve, fast and fresh.

Note also that you should .clone another copy of the response for messaging purposes. The original goes to the client, the first copy goes to the cache, and the second one is for reading and passing along to clients looking for updates. How do you pass that along exactly? We’ll cover that in the next section, for now we’ll just refer to the swivel library I made that simplifies and unifies the messaging API.

The following bit of code assumes you’ve created a copy of the response like updateCopy = response.clone(). For performance reasons, it’s better to try and extract the logic around figuring out whether you’ll actually need to notify clients, as that way you can clone the response only in those cases, reducing strain on the CPU.

var url = new URL(request.url);
var json = response.headers.get('Content-Type').indexOf('application/json') !== -1;
if (cached && url.origin === location.origin && json) {
  updateCopy.json().then(function parsed (data) {
    swivel.broadcast('view-update', request.url, data);

In an ideal world, we’d unicast the updated view model to the client who made the request, instead of broadcasting every client, but alas, the mechanism to associate fetch requests with specific clients is still a moving part of the ServiceWorker specification and hasn’t been implemented in browsers yet.

On the client-side, the web pages, we can now register a swivel event handler for view-update that refreshes the view. Again, we’ll discuss later how swivel works under the hood.


function setupMessaging () {
  swivel.on('view-update', function renderUpdate (context, href, data) {
    // use data to re-render view

When it comes to updating the view, that’s up to the implementation. If you’re using a framework like React or Taunus, it’s a really easy thing to do, you just re-apply the model to the view component and let the framework render that. Updating server-rendered HTML is a bit trickier, as the updated response is also HTML, and the client-side JavaScript probably hasn’t been executed yet when the fetch response comes through, meaning you’ll have to use a different mechanism to update views in this case.

A possible solution might be to take the opposite route: have the client ask the ServiceWorker for an update from the cache as soon as the client-side JavaScript executes. If your view rendering framework is flexible enough, you could even reuse the renderUpdate method by having the ServiceWorker reply with an updated JSON view.

On the client-side, when the page first loads, you could run the following code, telling the ServiceWorker you want an update on the cached content that was just rendered.

swivel.emit('active-client', location.href);

The ServiceWorker could then listen for these messages and reply with a JSON response for that page.

swivel.on('active-client', function activeClient (context, href) {
    .then(function (response) {
      return response.json();
    }).then(function (data) {
      context.reply('view-update', href, data);

Then the client, in turn, applies the changes to the view as needed. Note that you don’t necessarily have to immediately update the view. Even if you’re using React or some other virtual DOM powered engine, the UX may be weird if you just update the site, and you may want to consider partially applying updates or even showing a message indicating there’s more content, and the human could click that message to get the updates – for example. As usual, there’s a ton of options here.

What do you think would work best in your use case? I’d love to hear some opinions on this subject.

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Comments (6)

George Papadakis wrote

Hey Nicolas.

Let me start by thanking you for the wonderful ES6 articles and guides that I happily shared with the team and friends.

I am sure that they - as I - appreciated your effort in doing so.

As far as the ServiceWorker is concerned, I have been trying to find both time and courage to get on it, but honestly, it feels like a touch beast to get on with.

That said, and taking swivel in account, could you (or you planning) to create a very basic example on how to easily attach caching (based on TTLs, perhaps) on a generic site?

That 'd make things much much simpler to start with.

Again, thanks.

shubakk wrote

Hey, nice article.

There is a minor error in the last snippets : You emit ‘active-client

swivel.emit('active-client', location.href);

But listen to ‘client-active

swivel.on('client-active', function activeClient (context, href) {
Nicolas Bevacqua wrote

Thank you. Fixed!

Fabian wrote

A use case I’ve (just) added ServiceWorker to:

  • a large app using a unidirectional data flow where data is fetched initially over websockets, stored in a Baobab tree, and updated whenever one of the react components updates some data on the server.
  • problem: initial load is slow as it (a) has to connect (b) upgrade the connection to websocket © fetch a lot of data from different endpoints (d) parse the data.
  • serviceworker: solves the initial slowness issue by populating the Baobab tree with cached data, then replacing the data once the WS connection is established. React re-renders whenever the tree changes

Messaging strategy:

  • SW messages cached data to app
  • app messages SW with new data whenever it comes in, to update the cache
Šime Vidas wrote

How can swivel be imported into the service worker, if the service worker is a static .js file (i.e. not built using Babel or Browserify)? Can the standard importScripts method be used?

swivel is just imported into both the site and the service worker independently, and it knows how to establish a channel between them? No reference needs to be passed from one side to the other, or something like that? (Looking forward to a future post explaining how that works 😄.)

Nicolas Bevacqua wrote

You can import it just using the dist file, which exposes an UMD module.
You can use the exact same module on both the ServiceWorker and the site because it feature-detects where it’s running.
There’s no reference passing or anything like that.
When it comes to how they actually communicate, an article coming next week explains all the swivel internals.